The egocentric values disfavor the pro-environmental behavior of the diving guides in the Arrecifes de Cozumel National Park


Diving as a touristic activity has boosted the economy, but it has also impacted the reef areas. During this activity, the guide is the main actor in the protection of the marine environment, since he has the control of the activities carried out by the divers. This research analyzes the relationship between values, beliefs and norms about the intension of diving guides to preserve the marine environment. The study was approached through the theory of Values, Beliefs and Norms (VCN) and was analyzed through structural equation models with the method of Partial Least Squares. The causality of the VCN model is confirmed, and it is identified that the valuation of the marine resources could be influenced by the egocentric values, which did not allow the conception of an intention of a favorable behavior.
HTML (Español (España))
PDF (Español (España))
XML (Español (España))


Bennet, N. y Dearden, P. (2014). Why local people do not support conservation: Community perceptions of marine protected area livelihood impacts, governance and management in Thailand. Marine Policy. ELSEVIER. vol. 44. p. 110-114. de Marzo, 2014].

Baker, N. y Roberts, C. (2004). Scuba diver behavior and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs..Biological conservation. ELSEVIER, p. 2 y 6-8. [ 1 Mayo de 2014].

Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas. (2007). Programa de turismo en áreas protegidas 2006-2012. Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas. p. 4. [20 de Marzo, 2014].

Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas de Cozumel. (2014).

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern methods for business research. Vol. 295-336. No.2. Pp. [28 Junio, 2015]

Dulap, R., Van Liere, K., Mertig, A y Jones, E.(2000) Measuring endorsement of the new ecological paradigm: A revised Nep Scale. Journal of Social Issues. Vol 56, no. 3 p.4425-442. [26 de Abril, 2014].

De Groot, J. I., y Steg, L. (2009). Morality and prosocial behavior: The role of awareness, responsibility, and norms in the norm activation model. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 149. No.4. Pp. 425-449. [25 mayo, 2014]

Gärling, T., Fujii, S., Gärling, A.,y Jakobsson, C. (2003). Moderating effects of social value orientation on determinants of proenvironmental behavior intention. Journal of environmental psychology. Vol. 23. No.1. Pp. 3, 4 7 y 8. [25 Junio, 2015]

Hansla, A., Gamble, A., Juliusson, A., y Gärling, T. (2008). The relationships between awareness of consequences, environmental concern, and value orientations. Journal of environmental psychology, Vol. 28. No.1 Pp. 4-8.: [25 Junio, 2015]

Harland, P., Staats, H., y Wilke, H. A. (1999). Explaining proenvironmental intention and behavior by personal norms and the theory of planned behavior1.Journal of applied social psychology. Vol 29. No.12. Pp. 2512 y 2513. [25 Junio, 2015]

Hines J. M., Harold R. A. y Tomera A. N. (1987). Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: A meta-analysis.Journal of environmental education. Vol. 18. No. 2. Pp. [28 Junio, 2015]

Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales. (1998).Programa de manejo parque marino nacional, arrecifes de Cozumel. Coordinación de Publicaciones y Participación Social del INE. México. Primera edición. Pp. 9, 10 y 11. [17 de Abril, 2014].

Jakovcevic, A., y Steg, L. (2013). Sustainable transportation in Argentina: Values, beliefs, norms and car use reduction. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. Vol. 20 Pp. 72-73 y 76-78 [27 Junio 2015].

Kaiser, F. G., Hübner, G., y Bogner, F. X. (2005). Contrasting the Theory of Planned Behavior With the Value‐Belief‐Norm Model in Explaining Conservation Behavior. Journal of applied social psychology, Vol. 35. No.10. Pp. 2154-2156 [26 de Junio 2015].

Máynes, A. (2011). La transferencia de conocimiento organizacional como fuente de ventaja competitiva sostenible: modelo integrador de factores y estrategias. Tesis para obtener el grado de doctora en planeación estratégica y dirección de tecnológica. Centro interdisciplinario de investigación, posgrados y consultoría. Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla. Puebla, México, Pp. 143-178 [Septiembre, 2014].

López-Mosquera, N., y Sánchez, M. (2012). Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory explaining willingness to pay for a suburban park. [en linea] Journal of Environmental Management,. Vol. 113. Pp. 253-260 [26 de Junio 2015].

Oreg, S. y Katz-Gerro, T. (2006). Predicting proenvironmental behavior cross-nationally values, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory.[en linea] Environment and Behavior. Vol. 38. No. 4. Pp. 476-478 [29 de Junio 2015].

Onwezen, M. C., Antonides, G., y Bartels, J. (2013). The Norm Activation Model: An exploration of the functions of anticipated pride and guilt in pro-environmental behaviour..Journal of economic psychology. Vol 39. Pp. 146, 151-152 [29 de Junio 2015].

Pérez, C., Zizumbo, L. González, M. (2009).Impacto ambiental del turismo en áreas naturales protegidas; procedimiento metodológico para el análisis en el Parque Estatal El Ocotal, México.El Periplo Sustentable. Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina, el Caribe, España y Portugal, enero-junio, núm. 16, p 27 y 28. [20 de Marzo, 2014].

Portal de National Oceanic and atmospheric administration. (2011). [], [29 de Junio 2015].

Portal de United Nations Environment Programme.(2003).[] [29 de Junio 2015].

Raymond, C. M., Brown, G., y Robinson, G. M. (2011). The influence of place attachment, and moral and normative concerns on the conservation of native vegetation: A test of two behavioral models. Journal of Environmental Psychology. Vol.31. No.4. Pp.324 y 331-334 [ 3 de Julio 2015].

Salm, R., Clark, J. y Siirila, E. (2000). Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A guide for planners and managers. [en linea]. IUCN. Washington DC., Tercera edición, p. 9, 18, 16, 161, 165, 166 y 170 [ 3 de Julio 2015]

Santander, L. y Propin, E. (2009). Impacto ambiental del turismo de buceo en arrecifes de coral. Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina, el Caribe, España y Portugal. Cuadernos de Turismo, Vol.24, P. 218. Disponible en: [12 de Mayo,2014]

Sahin, E. (2013). Predictors of Turkish Elementary Teacher Candidates' Energy Conservation Behaviors: An Approach on Value-Belief-Norm Theory. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education. Vol 8. No 2 Pp.269-283.

Stern, P. (2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues. Vol. 56, No 3. P.408. [1 Mayo, 2014].

Stern, P., Dietz, T., Abel, T., Guagnano, G, y Kalof, L. (1999). A value-belief-norm theory of support for social movements: The case of environmentalism. Human Ecology Review, vol. 6, p. 81-98 [25 Abril de 2014].

Stern, P. y Dietz, T. (1994). The value basis of environmental concern. Journal of Social Issues. Vol. 50. No. 3.Pp. 65-72 [25, Abril, 2014].

Steg, L., Dreijerink, L., y Abrahamse, W. (2005). Factors influencing the acceptability of energy policies: A test of VBN theory. Journal of Environmental Psychology. Vol. 25. No.4. Pp. 417-419 y 423-424 [1 Mayo, 2014]..

Schwartz, S. H. (2006). A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology. Vol.5. No.2. Pp. 137-182 [1 Mayo, 2014].

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. [en linea] Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Vol. 25. Pp. 59-62 [1 Mayo, 2014].

van Riper, C. J., y Kyle, G. T. (2014). Understanding the internal processes of behavioral engagement in a national park: A latent variable path analysis of the value-belief-norm theory.Journal of Environmental Psychology. Vol. 38. Pp. 288-297 [12 Mayo, 2014].

Zhang, Y., Zhang, H. L., Zhang, J., y Cheng, S. (2014). Predicting residents' pro-environmental behaviors at tourist sites: The role of awareness of disaster's consequences, values, and place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology. Vol. 40, 141-145. [1 Junio, 2015].