Nests and broods of Mexican Duck (Anas diazi) in Penjamo, Guanajuato, Mexico


Seven nests of the Mexican Duck (Anas diazi) from Penjamo, Guanajuato, Mexico are described. The nearest nest-to-water body distance ranged from 100 m to 800 m; the nearest distance to standing water ranged from 150 m to 1200 m; the nesting cover was between 50 cm to 130 cm tall. Nests were mostly of a low-cup lateral and well-concealed type. External dimensions ranged from 25 cm to 45 cm × 20 cm to 33 cm, 0 cm to 13 cm tall; internal dimensions ranged from 17 cm to 36 cm × 9 cm to 20 cm. The primary nest material was wheat stubble, and the secondary material was Bouteloua-sorghum. When found, clutches consisted of 1-6 eggs, including viable (n = 2), poached (n = 1), abandoned (n = 2) and successful (n = 1) eggs. Observed broods (n = 6) had between 3 and 9 ducklings found over and up to 400 m from the standing water. Due to the scarcity of available information on the species, these results contribute to its knowledge on the most important distribution area.
HTML (Español (España))
PDF (Español (España))
XML (Español (España))


American Ornithologists’ Union (AOU) (1998). Check-list of North American birds (7th ed.). Washington, D. C.: American Ornithologists’ Union.

Baldasarre, G. A. (2014). Ducks, geese and swans of North America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Berlanga, H., Kennedy, J. A., Rich, T. D., Arizmendi, M. C., Beardmore, C. J., Blancher, P. J., Butcher, G. S., Couturier, A. R., Dayer, A. A., Demarest, D. W., Easton, W. E., Gustafson, M., Iñigo-Elias, E., Krebs, E. A., Panjabi, A. O., Rodriguez-Contreras, V., Rosenberg, K. V., Ruth, J. M., Santana-Castellón, E., Vidal, R. & Will, T. (2010). Conservando a nuestras aves compartidas: La vision trinacional de Compañeros en Vuelo para la conservación de las aves terrestres. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

Borgo, J. S. & Conover, M. R. (2016). Influence of shelterbelts on success and density of waterfowl nests within the prairie pothole region of North America. Waterbirds, 39(1), 74-80.

Chesser, R. T., Burns, K. J., Cicero, C., Dunn, J. L., Kratter, A. W., Lovette, I. J., Rasmussen, P. C., Remsen, J. V., Rising, J. D., Stotz, D. F. & Winker, K. (2016). Fifty-seventh Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union, Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 133(3), 544-560.

Clements, J. F., Schulenberg, T. S., Iliff, M. J., Roberson, D., Fredericks, T. A., Sullivan, B. L. & Wood, C. L. (2016). The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Recuperado de

Colón-Quezada, D. (2012). Estructura genética poblacional del pato Mexicano (Anas diazi) en México (Tesis de maestría). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: México.

Drilling, N., Titman, R. D. & McKinney, F. (2012). Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). En P. G. Rodewald (Ed.), The Birds of North America (pp. 658). Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Recuperado de

eBird (2016). Basic Dataset, Version: EBD_relAug-2016. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

Gill, F. & Donsker, D. (Eds.) (2016). IOC World Bird List (v 6.4). Ithaca, NY: IOC World Bird List Initiative. Recuperado de

González, J., Duttmann, H. & Wink, M. (2009). Phylogenetic relationships based on two mitochondrial genes and hybridization patterns in Anatidae. Journal of Zoology, 279(2009), 310-318.

González-Olvera, L. A. (1995). Algunos aspectos sobre la biología y ecología de la reproducción del pato Mexicano (Anas platyrhynchos diazi) en el ex Lago de Texcoco (Tesis de maestría). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: México.

Götmark, F. (1992). The effects of investigator disturbance on nesting birds. En D. M. Power (Ed.), Current Ornithology (pp. 63-103) Nueva York, NY: Springer.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J. & Christie, D. A. (Eds.) (2013). Handbook of the birds of the world. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N. J., Christie, D. A., Elliott, A. & Fishpool, L. D. C. (2014). HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World: Non-passerines. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Hubbard, J. P. (1977). The biological and taxonomic status of the Mexican duck. Santa Fe, NM: New Mexico Department of Game and Fish.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) (2009). Clave Geoestadística 11203, Prontuario de Información Geográfica Municipal. Aguascalientes: INEGI.

Johnson, K. P. & Sorenson, M. D. (1999). Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (Genus: Anas): a comparison of molecular and morphological evidence. Auk, 116(3), 792-805.

Kulikova, I. V., Drovetski, S. V., Gibson, D. D., Harrigan, R. J., Rohwer, S., Sorenson, M. D., Winker, K., Zhuravlev, Y. N. & McCracken, K. G. (2005). Phylogeography of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos): hybridization, dispersal, and lineage sorting contribute to complex geographic structure. Auk, 122(3), 949-965.

Lavretsky, P., Dacosta, J. M., Hernández-Baños, B., Engilis Jr., A., Sorenson, M. D. & Peters, J. L. (2015). Speciation genomics and a role for the Z chromosome in the early stages of divergence between Mexican Ducks and Mallards. Molecular Ecology, doi: 10.1111/mec.13402.

Lindsey, A. A. (1946). The nesting of the New Mexican Duck. Auk, 63(4), 483-492.

Leukering, T. & Mlodinow, S. G. (2012). The Mexican Duck in Colorado: Identification and Occurrence. Colorado Birds, 46(4), 296-308.

McCracken, K. G., Johnson, W. P., & Sheldon, F. H. (2001). Molecular population genetics, phylogeography, and conservation biology of the Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula). Conservation Genetics, 2(2), 87-102.

Mitchell, K. J., Wood, J. R., Scofield, R. P., Llamas, B. & Cooper, A. (2014). Ancient mitochondrial genome reveals unsuspected taxonomic affinity of the extinct Chatham Duck (Pachyanas chathamica) and resolves divergence times for New Zealand and sub-Antarctic brown teals.

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 70(2014), 420-428.

Medina-Torres, S. M., Marquez-Olivas, M. & Garcia-Moya, E. (2007). Uso y selección de embalses por el pato Mexicano (Anas diazi) en la región del Llano, Aguascalientes-Jalisco, México. Acta Zoológica Mexicana, 23(2), 163-181.

Mellink, E. (1994). Grazing and Mexican Ducks in central Mexico. Euphonia, 3(5), 5-7.

Moctezuma-Malagón, A., de la Lanza-Espino, E. G., González-Rebeles, E. C. & González-Esquivel, C. E. (2007). Multiculture of native species in irrigation ponds in central Mexico. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 19(1), 1-10.

Navarro-Sigüenza, A. G. & Peterson, A. T., (2007). Anas platyrhynchos (pato de collar) residencia permanente, distribución potencial. México, D. F. y Lawrence, KS: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y University of Kansas.

O’Brien, G. P. (1975). A Study of the Mexican Duck (Anas diazi) in southeastern Arizona. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department.

Palacio-Núñez, J., Verdú, J. R., Galante, E., Jiménez-García, D. & Olmos-Oropeza, G. (2007). Birds and fish as bioindicators of tourist disturbance in springs in semi-arid regions in Mexico: a basis for management. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 30(1), 29-41.

Pérez-Arteaga, A., Gaston, K. J. & Kershaw, M. (2002). Population trends and priority conservation sites for Mexican Duck Anas diazi. Bird Conservation International, 12(1), 35-52.

Pérez-Arteaga, A., Jackson, S. F., Carrera, E. & Gaston, K. J. (2005). Priority sites for wildfowl conservation in Mexico. Animal Conservation, 8(1), 41-50.

Ringelman, K. M., Eadie, J. M., Ackerman, J. T., Sih, A., Loughman, D. L., Yarris, G. S., Oldenburger, S. L. & McLandress, M. R. (2016). Spatiotemporal patterns of duck nest density and predation risk: a multi-scale analysis of 18 years and more than 10,000 nests. Oikos, doi:10.1111/oik.03728

Rzedowski, J. (2006). Vegetación de México. México, D.F.: CONABIO.

Scott, N. J. & Reynolds, R. P. (1984). Phenotypic variation of the Mexican Duck (Anas platyrhynchos diazi) in Mexico. Condor, 86(1), 266-274.

Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT) (2010). Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-Semarnat-2010, Protección Ambiental-Especies Nativas de México de Flora y Fauna Silvestres-Categorías de Riesgo y Especificaciones para su Inclusión, Exclusión o Cambio-Lista de Especies en Riesgo. Diario Oficial de la Federación, Segunda Sección. México, D.F.: SEMARNAT.

Semo, L. S. & Faulkner, D. G. (2010). The 54th Report of the Colorado Bird Records Committee. Colorado Birds, 44(2), 89-105.

Simon, J. E. & Pacheco, S. (2005). On the standardization of nest descriptions of neotropical birds. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 13(2): 143-154.

Wetlands International (2016). Waterfowl population estimates. Wageningen: Wetlands International.

Williams, S. O. III. (1980). The Mexican Duck in Mexico: Natural history, distribution, and population status (Tesis de doctorado). Colorado State University: Fort Collins, CO.