Evaluation of the effect of different radiation approaches on the estimation of evapotranspiration using the FAO Penman-Monteith model


Evapotranspiration is a very important process in the correct calculation of water availability, but it is one of the most difficult to estimate the hydrological cycle in regions with limited meteorological information. An alternative recently used to solve this problem is the use of satellite products with evapotranspiration at a regional scale. However, these products must be validated with information observed for their regional application, but the information is difficult to obtain in tropical latitudes. To solve this, an improvement to the FAO Penman-Monteith equation is proposed by including the spatial and temporal variability of the net radiation (Rn) with the Viewshed algorithm. The results show an improvement of 1.1% when comparing the results of the reference evapotranspiration against the estimates coming from the satellite product MOD16A3 and using the traditional calculation form of Rn.

PDF (Español (España))


Aguilar, A.L., Flores, H., Crespo, G., Marín, M.I., Campos, I. & Calera, A. (2018). Performance Assessment of MOD16 in Evapotranspiration Evaluation in Northwestern Mexico. Water, 10, pp. 1-14.

Alvarado-Barrientos, M.S. & Orozco, I. (2017). Comparison of satellite-derived potential evapotranspiration (MOD16A3) with in situ measurements from Quintana Roo, Mexico. 2016 IEEE 1er Congreso Nacional De Ciencias Geoespaciales: Sustainable Geospatial Technology at Service of Society, CNCG 2016– Proceedings. pp. 13-17.

Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. & Smith, D. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56 (1 st ed.) Roma, FAO-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. & Smith, D. (2006). Evapotranspiración del cultivo Guías para la determinación de los requerimientos de agua de los cultivos (1 st ed.) Roma, FAO-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Allen, S.J. & Grime, V.L. (1995). Measurements of transpiration from savannah shrubs using sap flow gauges. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volumen 75(1-3), pp. 23-41.

Bauer-Gottwein, P., Gondwe, B.R.N., Charvet, G., Marín, L.E., Rebolledo-Vieyra, M. & Merediz-Alonso, G. (2011). Review: The Yucatán Peninsula karst aquifer, Mexico. Hydrogeology Journal, volumen 19(3), pp. 507-524.

Bautista, F., Bautista, D. & Delgado-Carranza, C. (2009). Calibration of the equations of Hargreaves and Thornthwaite to estimate the potential evapotranspiration in semi-arid and subhumid tropical climates for regional applications. Atmosfera, volumen 22(4), pp. 331-348.

Beddows, P.A., Smart, P.L., Whitaker, F.F. & Smith S.L. (2007). Decoupled fresh-saline groundwater circulation of a coastal carbonate aquifer: Spatial patterns of temperature and specific electrical conductivity. Journal of Hydrology, volumen 346(1-2), pp. 8-32.

Bermudez-Contreras, A., Thomson, M. & Infield, D. (2008). Renewable energy powered desalination in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Desalination, volumen (431), pp. 40–220.

Carballo, R.M., Orozco, I. & Leal, R.M. (2015). Estimación de la recarga del acuífero de Quintana Roo mediante un balance hídrico para cuantificar su eficiencia en el abastecimiento de agua. En Delgado-Galván, X., Mora, J., Ortiz, J. (1), Los servicios de agua y drenaje con una visión integral, pp. 489-501.

Coronel, C., Rosales, E., Mora, F., López-Caloca, A.A., Tapia-Silva, F.O. & Hernández, G. (2008). Monitoring evapotranspiration at landscape scale in Mexico: applying the energy balance model using remotely sensed data. Proceedings of SPIE, volumen (7104).

Cuenca, R.H., Stangel, D.E. & Kelly, S.F. (1997). Soil water balance in boreal forest. Journal of Geophysical Research, volumen 102(97), pp. 29355-29365.

Dunn, S.M. & Mackay, R. (1995). Spatial variation in evapotranspiration and the influence of land use on catchment hydrology. Journal of Hydrology, volumen 171(1-2), pp. 49-73.

Fisher, J.B., Melton, F., Middleton, E., Hain, C., Anderson, M., Allen R., McCabe, M.F., Hook, S., Baldocchi, D., Townsend, P.A., Kilic, A., Tu, K., Miralles, D.D., Perret, J., Lagouarde J.P., Waliser, D., Purdy, A.J., French, A., Schimel, D., Famiglietti, J.S., Stephens, G. & Wood, E.F. (2017), The future of evapotranspiration: Global requirements for ecosystem functioning, carbon and climate feedbacks, agricultural management, and water resources. Water Resour. Res., volumen 53, pp. 2618-2626.

Fu, P. & Rich, P. (2002). A geometric solar radiation model with applications in agriculture and forestry. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, volumen 37(1-3), pp. 25-35.

Fu, P. & Rich, P.M. (2000). A Geometric Solar Radiation Model and its Applications in Agriculture and Forestry. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Geospatial Information in Agriculture and Forestry, volumen (I), pp. 357-364.

Graniel, C.E., Morris, L. B. & Carrillo-Rivera, J. J. (1999). Effects of urbanization on groundwater resources of Merida , Yucatan , Mexico. Environmental Geology, volumen 37(4), pp. 303-312.

García, N.H. & Espinosa, M. (2011). Plan Rector en materia de agua para la protección , conservación y recuperación ambiental de la península de Yucatán, México, Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua-IMTA.

García-Arias, A., Francés, F., Morales-de la Cruz, M., Real, J., Vallés-Morán, F., Garófano-Gómez, V. & Martínez-Capel, F. (2014). Riparian evapotranspiration modelling: Model description and implementation for predicting vegetation spatial distribution in semi-arid environments. Ecohydrology, volumen 7(2), pp. 659–677.

Gondwe, B. (2010). Exploration, Modelling and Management of Groundwater-dependent Ecosystems in Karst - the Sian Ka’an Case Study, Yucatan, Mexico (PhD Thesis), Kongens Lyngby,Technical University of Denmark.

Gondwe, B.R.N., Lerer, S., Stisen, S., Marín, L., Rebolledo-Vieyra, M., Merediz-Alonso, G. & Bauer-Gottwein, P. (2010). Hydrogeology of the south-eastern Yucatan Peninsula: New insights from water level measurements, geochemistry, geophysics and remote sensing. Journal of Hydrology, volumen 389(1-2), pp. 1-17.

Gong, L., Xu, C., Chen, D., Halldin, S. & Chen, Y.D. (2006). Sensitivity of the Penman-Monteith reference evapotranspiration to key climatic variables in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) basin. Journal of Hydrology, volumen 329(3-4), pp. 620-629.

González-Herrera, R., Sánchez-y-Pinto, I. & Gamboa-Vargas, J. (2002). Groundwater-flow modeling in the Yucatan karstic aquifer, Mexico. Hydrogeology Journal, volumen 10(5), pp. 539–552.

Hernández-Escobedo, Q., Fernández-García, A. & Manzano-Agugliaro, F. (2017). Solar resource assessment for rural electrification and industrial development in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, volumen (76), pp. 1550-1561.

Jaeger, L. & Kessler, A. (1997). Twenty years of heat and water balance climatology at the Hartheim pine forest, Germany. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volumen (84), pp. 25-36.

Jiang, L. & Islam, S. (2001). Estimation of surface evaporation map over Southern Great Plains using remote sensing data. Water Resources Research, volumen 37(2), pp. 329-340.

Matin, M.A. & Bourque, C.P.A. (2013). Assessing spatiotemporal variation in actual evapotranspiration for semi-arid watersheds in northwest China: Evaluation of two complementary-based methods. Journal of Hydrology, volumen (486), pp. 455-465.

Monteith, J.L.(1965). “Evaporation and environment”, In: The state and movement of water in living organism. 19th Symp. Soc. Exptl. Biol., pp.


Mu, Q., Zhao, M. & Running, S.W. (2011). Improvements to a MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm. Remote Sensing of Environment, volumen (115), pp. 1781-1800.

Quej, V.H., Almorox, J., Ibrakhimov, M. & Saito, L. (2016). Empirical models for estimating daily global solar radiation in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Energy Conversion and Management, volumen (110), pp. 448-456.

Ramoelo, A., Majozi, N., Mathieu, R., Jovanovic, N., Nickless, A. & Dzikiti, S. (2014). Validation of global evapotranspiration product (MOD16) using flux tower data in the African savanna, South Africa. Remote Sensing, volumen (6), pp. 7406-7423.

Rich, P.M., Dubayah, R., Hetrick, W.A. & Saving, S.C. (1994). Using Viewshed Models to Calculate Intercepted Solar Radiation: Applications in Ecology. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Technical Papers, pp. 524-529.

Rivas, D., Saleme-Vila, S., Ortega-Izaguirre, R., Chalé-Lara, R. & Caballero-Briones, F. (2013). A climatological estimate of incident solar energy in Tamaulipas, northeastern Mexico. Renew Energy, volumen (293).

Roa-Fuentes, L.L., Hidalgo, C., Etchevers, J.D. & Campo, J. (2013). The effects of precipitation regime on soil carbon pools on the Yucatan Peninsula. Journal of Tropical Ecology, volumen 29(05), pp. 463-466.

Salazar M.D. (2018). Evaluación del producto MOD16 de evapotranspiración global a partir de flujos eddy covarianza en un cafetal de la región de montaña del centro de Veracruz (Mexico). Tesis de maestría, Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. pp. 44.

Smith, D.M. & Allen, S.J. (1996). Measurement of sap flow in plant stems. Journal of Experimental Botany, volumen 47(12), pp. 1833-1844.

Sun, Z., Wang, Q., Ouyang, Z., Watanabe, M., Matsushita, B. & Fukushima, T. (2007). Evaluation of MOD16 algorithm using MODIS and ground observational data in winter wheat field in North China Plain. Hydrological processes, volumen (21), 1196-1206.

Uuh‐Sonda, J.M., Gutiérrez‐Jurado, H.A., Figueroa‐Espinoza, B. & Méndez‐Barroso, L.A. (2018). On the ecohydrology of the Yucatan Peninsula: Evapotranspiration and carbon intake dynamics across an eco‐climatic gradient. Hydrological Processes. Volumen (32), pp. 2806-2828

Velpuri, N.M., Senay, G.B., Singh, R.K., Bohms, S. & Verdin, J.P. (2013). A comprehensive evaluation of two MODIS evapotranspiration products over the conterminous United States: Using point and gridded FLUXNET and water balance ET. Remote Sensing of Environment, volumen (139), pp. 35-49.

Villasuso, M. J. & Ramos, R. M. (2000). A conceptual model of the aquifer of the Yucatán Peninsula. Research Report-International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Iiasa RR, volumen (14), pp. 120-139.

Whitehead, D., Kelliher, F.M., Lane, P.M. & Pollock, D.S. (2008). Seasonal Partitioning of Evaporation Between Trees and Understorey in a Widely Spaced Pinus radiata Stand. Journal of Applied Ecology, volumen 31(3), pp. 528-542.

Wilson, K.B., Hanson, P.J., Mulholland, P.J., Baldocchi, D.D. & Wullschleger, S.D. (2001). A comparison of methods for determining forest evapotranspiration and its components: Sap-flow, soil water budget, eddy covariance and catchment water balance. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volumen 106(2), pp.153-168.